The guidelines for the diagnosis of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention include complaints of abdominal pain and clinical results regarding abdominal, cervical and appendicular sensitivity (98).
Silent pelvic inflammatory diseases that have not been reported may account for 50 percent or more of all pelvic inflammatory disease cases (99).
About 70 percent of women who have been diagnosed with pelvic inflammatory disease in the US are under 25 years old (100).
Vaginal shower can increase the risk of pelvic inflammatory diseases by promoting the increase of lower genital infections in the upper genital tract, changing the vaginal environment to increase susceptibility to reproductive tract infections, pelvic inflammatory diseases, a precursor or non-pathogenic vaginal bacteria introduced into a typically sterile upper genitalia 11
It can also be a liquid pressure carrier for transporting the pathogen, which helps lower genital tract infections to travel through the cervix to the uterus, fallopian tubes or abdominal cavity (3, 16).
Ness et al. (25) found that in the group of women with pelvic inflammatory disease and greater incidence of endometritis and upper genital infections in women with normal or intermediate vaginal flora was associated, although in women with bacteria Vagina was not detected 11
Pathogenic bacteria can then climb into the upper reproductive tract and lead to inflammatory scars (endometritis, salpingitis or peritonitis), the main cause of ectopic pregnancy, premature delivery and infertility (16).
The physiological risk of sexually transmitted diseases is higher in adolescence because they usually have ectopic columnar epithelial cells in the cervix with a large transformation zone susceptible to bacterial and viral sexually transmitted infections (26).
The shower can cause infection of the uterus or fallopian tubes and cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
The presence or overgrowth of yeast, bacteria or viruses may cause a vaginal infection.
Vaginal infection can occur when the normal balance of organisms in the vagina changes.
They concluded that rinsing in some people can reduce existing vaginal bacteria, allowing potential pathogens to grow rapidly and increasing the risk of associated infections.
As a result, Monif (34) argued for the possible benefits of showering.
However, these experiments do not reflect the fact that some women may participate in behavior that changes vaginal ecology before returning to normal, such as 11
The burden of epidemiological evidence suggests that repeated washing and associated antibacterial effects reduce the prevalence of lactic bacteria and the risk of reproductive system infections.
The Central African Republic stated that vaginal augmentation with non-commercial preparations was associated with an increased incidence of human immunodeficiency virus, while showers with commercial antiseptic preparations were associated with a lower incidence of this virus.
However, the median years of training for women using commercial antiseptics was 8 years, compared to just 2 years for women using non-commercial preparations, so the results may be confused because of their socioeconomic status.
The relationship between human immunodeficiency virus, bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases is complex, because all of them can be affected by behavior with high sexual risk.
Given the large number of women infected with human immunodeficiency virus, other sexually transmitted diseases and bacterial vaginosis around the world, as well as the increased risk of bathing, teaching women to stop taking showers can have a huge impact on the risk of infection and reproductive health consequences 11
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (171) provides an information card on vaginitis, which states that redness can lead to vaginal irritation and vaginitis.
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (173) published a leaflet about pelvic inflammatory disease, which states that women who take a shower once or twice a month are more likely to suffer from pelvic inflammatory disease less than women less often than once.within a month.
Their leaflet on sexually transmitted diseases states that sexually active women should refrain from bathing to prevent sexually transmitted diseases because showers remove some normal protective bacteria from the vagina and increase the risk of some sexually transmitted diseases (174).
Many women sometimes have unpleasant vaginal infections (vaginitis).
The area around the entrance to the vagina (vulva) may also be irritated.
Measures can be taken to alleviate and prevent vulvar and vaginal infections.
Not all vaginal infections are the same, and home treatment may make some types worse.
If more estrogen and more blood flow into the vagina, the vulva may be swollen.
The skin color of the vulva and vaginal opening may darken.
Hormonal changes can also change the balance of yeast and bacteria in the vagina.
Some women may develop varicose veins in the vagina, vulva and anus during pregnancy (these are usually hemorrhoids).
When the amount of estrogen in the body decreases, it is usually associated with dry vulva and vagina.
Before the menopause, the vagina is acidic, but after the menopause the acidity (pH) changes, which can affect the vagina and bladder’s resistance to infection.
The area of the vulva also changes with age when the adipose tissue, labia (external lips of the vagina) and the skin hood covering the clitoris decrease.
Women who have undergone pre-menopausal breast cancer treatment may develop symptoms such as hot flushes, night sweats, joint pain and vaginal dryness.